Today Molise has 136 communities. More than
3/4 of these preserve easily recognisable fortifications or traces on the ground. Even without considering the castles and towers of which no trace remains, or
those that are mentioned only in archive documents, it is clear that this region hosts a huge number of fortifications, and that researches on this subject can
generate a lot of interest. Fortifications (130 castles, towers and enceintes have been counted up to date) can be said to represent a constant element in the
Molisian landscape. Some of the most important examples include Acquaviva d’Isernia, Bonefro, Colle d’Anchise, Celenza,
Campolieto, Castelbottaccio, Castelpetroso, Ferrazzano, Guglionesi, Lucito, Limosano, Lupara, Montecilfone, Montagano, Montelongo, Montorio, Miranda, Nuova Cliternia, Palata, Petacciato, Pettoranello, Rionero del Sannio, S.Giuliano, S.Agapito and Spinete.
In addition to the artefacts of major interest many other examples can be cited which, though less striking, are of great historical importance. A selection of
towers that have been lost includes the turret of Venafro, the quarry tower in Pietrabbondante, the Mennella keep in Filignano, the tower of Terravecchia in
Sepino, the Francona tower in Palata). To these must be added the towers on town walls (Larino is one of the many examples) and the surviving house-towers that
are sometimes concealed in downtown areas (Campobasso, Cercemaggiore, S.Giuliano di Puglia, Casacalenda, Larino).